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Iran History

The plateau of Iran is among the oldest civilization centers in the history of humanity and has an important place in archeological studies. The history of settlement in the Plateau of Iran, from the new Stone Age till the migration of Aryans to this region, is not yet very clear. But there is reliable evidence indicating that Iran has been inhabited since a very long time ago. Settlement centers have emerged close to water resources like springs, rivers, lakes or totally close to Alborz and Zagross mountains.

The most important centers of this kind are; Tappeh (hill) Sialk in Kashan, Tappeh Hesar in Damghan, Torang Tappeh in Gorgan, Tappeh Hekmataneh in Hamedan, Tappeh Hassanloo in Azerbaijan, Tappeh Marlik in Roodbar, and Susa (Shoosh) in Khuzistan. According to archeological excavations conducted in these civilization centers, some vestiges have been discovered, the antiquity of which dates back to the fifth millennium BC.
The migration of Aryan tribes to the Plateau of Iran began in the second millennium BC. Out of these tribes, the Parthians dwelled in Khorassan, the Medes in the west, and the Parsees resided in southern Iran. The Median Empire rose in Hekmataneh (Ekbatan), the present Hamedan.
The Achaemenidae established the first great Persian Empire after defeating the Medes and conquest of their capital. The limits of the Achaemenian territory during the reign of Dariush I (522–485 BC) extended from the Plain of Sand River in the east to the borders of Greece in the West.
Passargad and Persepolis are among the vestiges of this period and, as important historical sites, are visited by a significant number of foreign tourists annually, After the decline of the Achaemenian dynasty, and the destruction of Persepolis by Alexander, his successors the Seleucids dominated over Iran for a short period. During this time the inter action between Iranian and Hellenic cultures occurred,Around the year 250 BC, the Parthians, who were an Aryan tribe as well as horse riders, advanced from Khorassan towards the west and south-west and founded their empire over Iran Plateau in Teesfoon. This empire survived only untill the year 224 AD. The Sassanides, after defeating the last Parthian king in 225 AD, founded a new empire, which lasted, untill mid 7th century AD. With respect to its political, social, and cultural characteristics, the ancient period of Iran (Persia) is one of the most magnificent epochs of Iranian history. Out of this era, so many cultural and historical monuments have remained in Persepolis, Passargad, Susa (Shoosh), Shooshtar, Hamedan, Marvdasht (Naghsh-eRostam), Taghbostan, Sarvestan, and Nayshabour, which are worth seeing. The influence of Islam in Iran began in the early 7th century AD -after the decline of the Sassanide Empire. Since then, new era began in the history of Iran, which caused fundamental changes in social, political, religious, governmental, and general conditions of the country.
Iranians, who were very unhappy with the existing social and economic inequalities in the time of the Sassanides, accepted Islam easily and contributed to its expansion and enrichment. However, Iranians never covered up their opposition against dominance and the tyranny of the Omavi and Abbasi Caliphs and founded many autonomous movements to confront them. In return, the Omavi and the Abbasi Caliphs, tried to neutralize and suppress these movements, which were based on partisanship of the Prophet of Islam family and establish ment of a government on the basis of Imamat, by supporting non-Iranian forces. Continuity of wars of attrition among local governors weakened the overall power of the country and favored condi-tions for invasion by stranger tribes of Central Asia, like the Seljuki Turks, Mongols, and Teymorides. In the Safavid time, the second great Iranian Empire was founded, and the Shiite sect of Islam, disciples of which were seriously limited until then, was formalized. The dynamic nature of Shiism and its political and social commitments firmly safeguarded Iranian independence and national identity against Ottoman assaults. Thus, Iran once again became a new political and religious power. With the decline of the Safavid, Afsharieh and later the Zandieh took the throne. After the Zandieh rule, the Qajars took power. At this time, the influence of foreign powers such as Britain and Russia in the internal affairs of Iran significantly increased. Meanwhile, social movements of Tobacco, Constitutional Revolution, Forest Uprising, and Sheik Mohammed Khiabani’s Revolt took place. In the Pahlavi period, Oil Industry Nationalization Movement incited the uprising of June 5, 1963, and other autonomous movements resulting in the Islamic Revolution under the leadership of Imam Khomeini in 1979.

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